Categories
Infrastructure

Kerberos PreAuthentication and Party Tricks

Back in 2016, Geoffrey Janjua of Exumbra Operations Group, presented at LayerOne about “Kerberos Party Tricks” and abusing user accounts which have Kerberos Pre-authentication disabled.

The python script he released at the time was a great proof-of-concept, but there are alternative tools available now for detecting, and exploiting, this issue.

Categories
Infrastructure

Spoofing Packets and DNS Exfiltration

Following a successful penetration test, you may have large amounts of data to exfiltrate from an environment specifically hardened to make it difficult to exfiltrate data. For example, the network might have a firewall that explicitly blocks common exfiltration methods – such as SSH, HTTPS, HTTP.

It is common that you can still exfiltrate data from these networks by using DNS. For example you could make a request to a domain name that you control where the subdomain contains some information to be exfiltrated. Such as sensitive-data-here.attacker.example.com. DNS is a recursive system, such that if you send this request to a local DNS server, it will forward it on and on until it reaches the authoritative server. If you control the authoritative server, you can simply read the sensitive data from the DNS logs.

Categories
Breach

Equifax Breach Timeline

Summary

In 2017 Equifax were breached, the breach was discovered on July 29[5] and an announcement was published on Sept 7.[5] It wasn’t the largest breach of all time, and not even of 2017, but it was big and the data was sensitive. Over the two weeks following the announcement, Equifax stock fell from 142.72 to 92.98 (34.58%)

Categories
Strategy

Information Security Strategy, Part 1

The Problems of Security Testing and Unmanageable Reports

I’d like to talk a little bit about security testing, the problem of information overload and issue prioritisation. To do this I intend on broadly discussing some of the problems of the various options for security testing that organisations have.

I’ve written about some related things before, if you’d like a warm up:

However, I’d like to look a little at security a little more strategically today and to discuss the wider problems with security testing. To centre around the idea that, there are three main problems with the way companies approach security testing:

Categories
Cloud

An Introduction to PenTesting Azure

Introduction

I recently wrote an introduction to cloud computing, and an introduction to PenTesting an AWS Environment. A sensible place to start given that I included that in Q1 of 2018 Amazon holds a 33% market share in cloud whereas Microsoft only holds 13%. However I did want to add a few notes that are specific to PenTesting within Azure environments here.

Categories
Cloud

An Introduction to Cloud Computing: Many Clouds in the Sky

A couple of days ago, I posted an article about Penetration Testing within AWS. I made comment on the different kinds of testing within this kind of environment however I didn’t add much detail regarding the kinds of environments – as I was speaking specifically of AWS.

So I decided to break things down a little further:

Part 1. An Introduction to Cloud Computing (you are here)

Part 2.  An Introduction to Penetration Testing AWS: Same Same, but Different

Part 3. An Introduction to PenTesting Azure

I’m going to do a short piece here to discuss a little more about the concepts of cloud itself, for those who haven’t made the jump. What is cloud computing? Microsoft neatly defines it as “the delivery of computing services over the Internet, typically charged based on usage.” Whereas Amazon words it as: on-demand delivery of IT resources via the internet with pay-as-you-go pricing.

Categories
Cloud

An Introduction to Penetration Testing AWS: Same Same, but Different

Introduction

When penetration testing Amazon Web Services (AWS) environments there are different perspectives the assessment could consider, some are very similar to external infrastructure/web application assessments and some are different.

I’ll separate the things that are the same from the things that are different to traditional penetration testing by considering the following types of cloud testing and then breaking each one down into the kinds of testing that could take place:

Categories
Web Application Security

Winning the Popularity Contest

Recently I took a look at a new social media/dating website and noticed an interesting feature – the site had a sort of “popularity contest” of sorts which runs every 30 days. Users vote on other users, scoring them out of 10 and whoever gets the most points wins their place at the top of the highscore table as officially the “Hottest Member”. So naturally I wanted to win!

Categories
Strategy

Security is Hard: Where Do I Start?

This post is not supposed to be a complete list of steps a company should take when securing a network, system, or company – but more of a handy reference for when companies ask me: “Where do we even start?” Which happens about once a week…

Categories
Hardware

A Noob Installed BSD

The year is 2017, the year of BSD on the desktop…at least for me it is. Now as anyone who reads this site regularly will know, I’m pretty good with these com-puter thingies. However – plot twist, I’ve never ran BSD before. I use Mac OS X on a MacBook I have definitely voided the warranty on and for my personal computing and I use Linux, Fedora Security Lab, for the day job. So I’m not afraid of a command line, but at this stage I don’t even know what kind of command line I’ll get with BSD!